Nhận Dạng Quốc Tế & Đặc Tính Hóa Học
Traditional IUPAC Name
Độ hòa tan
1E+006 mg/L (at 25 °C)
pKa (strongest acidic)
pKa (Strongest Basic)
Dược Lực Học :
Alcohol produces injury to cells by dehydration and precipitation of the cytoplasm or protoplasm. This accounts for its bacteriocidal and antifungal action. When alcohol is injected in close proximity to nerve tissues, it produces neuritis and nerve degeneration (neurolysis). Ninety to 98% of ethanol that enters the body is completely oxidized. Ethanol is also used as a cosolvent to dissolve many insoluble drugs and to serve as a mild sedative in some medicinal formulations. Ethanol also binds to GABA, glycine, NMDA receptors and modulates their effects. Ethanol is also metabolised by the hepatic enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase.
Cơ Chế Tác Dụng :
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in alcoholic beverages. [PubChem]
Ethanol affects the brain’s neurons in several ways. It alters their membranes as well as their ion channels, enzymes, and receptors. Alcohol also binds directly to the receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin, GABA, and the NMDA receptors for glutamate.
The sedative effects of ethanol are mediated through binding to GABA receptors and glycine receptors (alpha 1 and alpha 2 subunits). It also inhibits NMDA receptor functioning. In its role as an anti-infective, ethanol acts as an osmolyte or dehydrating agent that disrupts the osmotic balance across cell membranes.
Dược Động Học :
▧ Absorption :
▧ Metabolism :
Hepatic. Metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1.
Độc Tính :
Oral, rat LD50: 5628 mg/kg. Symptoms and effects of overdose include nausea, vomiting, CNS depression, acute respiratory failure or death and with chronic use, severe health problems, such as liver and brain damage.
Chỉ Định :
For therapeutic neurolysis of nerves or ganglia for the relief of intractable chronic pain in such conditions as inoperable cancer and trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux), in patients for whom neurosurgical procedures are contraindicated.
Tương Tác Thuốc :
Abacavir is partly metabolized through the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme system. Alcohol increases the area under the curve (about 41%) of Abacavir. Interaction does not appear to be clinically significant.
Avoid combination due to ethanol induced increased absorption of gabapentin enacarbil and increased CNS depression.
The combination of these drugs will likely enhance mipomersen related hepatotoxicity. Therefore patients using both these drugs, should limit their alcohol to a daily maximum of 1 drink (or equivalent).
Avoid combination due to the enhanced central nervous system depression, and likely worse behavioral and psychiatric adverse reactions.
Ethanol increases the adverse effects of Tizanidine. The CNS depressant effects of these agents are additive.
Triprolidine may enhance the CNS depressant effects of Ethanol.
Liều Lượng & Cách Dùng :
Aerosol - Topical
Gel - Topical
Liquid - Intramuscular
Liquid - Intravenous
Liquid - Oral
Liquid - Topical
Lotion - Topical
Solution - Topical
Solution / drops - Oral
Spray - Topical